Phase-out of ozone-depleting substances and fluorinated greenhouse gases in the Russian Federation
  • Arctic Council
  • Nefco
  • Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

History of Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed by 46 countries on September 16, 1987.

Initially, the Montreal Protocol imposed the freezing production of the five most widely used CFCs and halons at the level of 1986 with the following phasing-out their production by 20% in 1993 and by 30% in 1998. The document limited ODS export and import and provided support for developing countries in the transfer of their industry to ozone-safe substances and technologies.

Article 5 establishes an exceptional position of developing countries and grants them a delay period if their annual calculated level of consumption of the controlled substances in Annex A (five most common CFCs and halons) does not exceed 0.3 kg per capita at joining the Protocol or any subsequent period until January 1, 1999.

Initially, measures of the Protocol were aimed at significant decrease of the production of ODSs without complete ceasing. Such an approach gave space to develop and introduce technically and economically feasible alternatives (TEFA).

Later amendments and adjustments to the Protocol extended the list of the controlled substances, relevant consumption, and production phase-out schedules, and measures to limit export, import, and other activities.

As of September 2021, 198 countries ratified the Montreal Protocol, meaning all the UN member states, Niue, Cook Islands, State of Palestine, Holy See, and European Union.

The Russian Federation is a party to the Montreal Protocol since December 31, 1991, as a successor of the USSR that signed it on December 29, 1987, and ratified on November 10, 1988.

Some provisions of Montreal Protocol

Article 2 initially established the phase-out schedule for ODS consumption and use, and with amendments it now describes the measures to control consumption and use of the controlled substances. The phase-out schedules for different controlled substances are in Articles 2А, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F, 2G, 2H, 2I, and 2J.

Article 3 stipulates approaches to the calculation of control levels for production and consumption.

Article 4 describes measures to control ODS trade aimed at encouraging countries to join the Montreal Protocol and prevent the transfer of technologies for production or use of controlled substances to countries that are not parties to the Protocol.

Article 5 establishes a delay period to introduce and implement the control measures, for developing countries.

Article 6 directs to assess the control measures on the basis of available scientific, environmental, technical, and economic information at least every four years.

Article 7 foresees the annual provision of statistical data on production, imports, and exports of each controlled substance to the Ozone Secretariat.

Article 8 establishes procedures and institutional mechanisms for determining non-compliance with the Protocol.

Article 9 foresees the exchange of information between the Parties.

Article 10 describes a mechanism of financial and technical cooperation, including technology transfer to the Article 5 countries.

The mechanism provides for multilateral, regional and bilateral cooperation and operation of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol. Its resources cover “agreed incremental costs” that developing countries acting under point 1 of Article 5 bear to implement the control measures of the Montreal Protocol.

Original text of the Montreal Protocol (in Russian)

Adjustments and amendments to Montreal Protocol

The first version was approved on September 16, 1987, and entered into force on January 1, 1989.

The protocol provides for adjustments to coefficients with the account of the latest scientific data allowing promptly change phase-out schedules. Adjustments are applied automatically to all the countries that ratified the Protocol.

Amendments to the Montreal Protocol should be ratified by the Parties. Since 1987 five amendments have been adopted: the London, Copenhagen, Montreal, Beijing, and Kigali one.

In addition to adjustments and amendments, Parties annually meet to decide on the Protocol implementation.

London amendment

Under the London amendment, a number of new CFCs, methyl chloroform (MCF), and carbon tetrachloride (CTC) were added to the list of ODSs.

A new term, transitional substances—i.e. compounds affecting the ozone layer with no limited production period—was introduced. These substances were seen as TEFA and included hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) and hydrobromofluorocarbons (HBFC).

The London amendment was adopted by the Second Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol (London, 27–29.06.1990).

The USSR adopted it in pursuance of the order of the Cabinet of Ministers dd. 23.041991 No.198. For the Russian Federation, the amendment came into force on January 13, 1992.

Copenhagen amendment

The amendment set the end date for production of HFCFs (2030 and 2040 for Article 2 and 5 countries, respectively) and HBFC (1996), and extended the end date for five CFCs (R-11, R-12, R-113, R-114, R-115), CTC, MCF (1996) and halons (1994).

Methyl bromide, a fumigant, became a controlled substance, so for Article 2 and 5 countries, its consumption was frozen at the 1995 and 2002 levels, respectively.

The Copenhagen amendment was adopted by the Fourth Meeting of the Parties (Copenhagen, 23–25.11.1992), and as of September 2021 it was ratified by all the parties to the Montreal Protocol.

The Russian Federation is a party to the amendment since December 14, 2005.

Montreal amendment

The amendment provides for the establishment of a global licensing system and control of exports and imports of ODSs, corrects the methyl bromide production phase-out schedule, and bans MB imports and exports to and from countries that are not the parties to the Copenhagen amendment since November 10, 2000.

The amendment was adopted by the Ninth Meeting of the Parties (Montreal, 15–25.11.1997), and as of September 2018, it was ratified by all the parties to the Montreal Protocol.

The Russian Federation is a party to the amendment since December 14, 2005.

Beijing amendment

The Beijing amendment establishes new HCFC consumption levels, prohibits trade in any ODS with countries that have not ratified the amendment, introduces control measures for HCFC, CFC, and halon production in developing countries, and bans production and consumption of bromochloromethane since January 1, 2002. HCFC production was frozen at the level of January 1, 2004, for Article 2 countries, and January 1, 2016, for Article 5 countries.

The Beijing amendment was adopted by the Eleventh Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol (Beijing, 29–29.06.1999).

The Russian Federation is a party to the amendment since December 14, 2005.

As of September 2021, 197 parties to the Montreal Protocol joined the London, Copenhagen, Montreal, and Beijing amendments (save as the State of Palestine).

Kigali amendment

This amendment stipulates a phase-out of production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFC).

The amendment adds 100-year GWP for a number of HCFCs and adopts Annex F for HFCs. Consumption levels (including the baseline ones) for the amendment are calculated not in ozone-depleting potential tons but in GWP tons (tons of CO2 equivalent).

The Kigali amendment establishes different HFC phase-out schedules for four groups of countries: two groups of developing and two groups of developed countries.

The amendment was adopted by the Twenty-Eighth Meeting of the Parties (Kigali, 10–15.10.2016), and as of September 2021, it was ratified by 122 parties to the Montreal protocol.

The Russian Federation joined the amendment on October 3, 2020, and on January 1, 2021, it came into force.

Text of the Montreal Protocol with the adjustments, and the London, Copenhagen, Montreal, Beijing, and Kigali amendments

Destruction of ODSs

Under point 5 of Article 1 of the Protocol, the parties approve destruction technologies for controlled substances.

According to Decision I/12F adopted by the First Meeting of the Parties, “a destruction process is one which, when applied to controlled substances, results in the permanent transformation, or decomposition of all or a significant portion of such substances.”

Decision II/11 of the Second Meeting provides for establishing an Ad Hoc Technical Advisory Committee on Destruction Technologies to analyze destruction technologies, assess their efficiency and environmental acceptability, and to develop approval criteria and measurements.

The first list of approved destruction technologies approved by Decision IV/11 of the Forth Meeting included only five technologies: liquid injection incineration, reactor cracking, gaseous/fume oxidation, rotary kiln incinerators, cement kilns.

The latest version of the list of technologies was adopted by Decision XXX/6 at the Thirtieth Meeting, and includes 17 destruction technologies for different controlled substances, including HFCs that were added by the Kigali amendment.

Read more about the disposal of ODSs and F-gases

Substance Period Reduction to the baseline, % Annual consumption of controlled substances, ODP t
HCFCs January 1, 2020 – December 31, 2029 99.5
(HCFC consumption equal to 0.5% of the base level is allowed only for servicing refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment that was manufactured before January 1, 2030).
January 1, 2030
0 0

HCFC baseline for the Russian Federation — 3,999.9 ODP t.

Substance Period Consumption to the baseline, % Annual consumption of controlled substances in GWP tons (CO2-eq. t), max
HFCs January 1, 2020 – Decembe 31, 2024 95 46,292,794
January 1, 2025 – December 31, 2028 65 31,674,017
January 1, 2029 – December 31, 2033 30 14,618,777
January 1, 2034 – December 31, 2035 20 9,745,851
Since 2036 15 7,309,389

HFCs baseline for the Russian Federation — 48 729 257 tons CO2.

Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol

The Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol was established in 1991 to assist developing countries in fulfillment of the Montreal Protocol. Read more

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