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Phase-out of ozone-depleting substances
and fluorinated greenhouse gases in the Russian Federation

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

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On September 16, 1987, representatives of 46 countries signed the Montreal Protocol in Montreal, Canada.

By that time, effect of chlorine and bromine atoms on depletion of the ozone layer had been recognized, and annexes to the Protocol included chlorofluorocarbons (HFC) and bromine-containing halons.

Article 5 of the Protocol establishes special conditions for developing countries which include those with calculated annual consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) less than 0.3 kg per head. In terms of the Protocol, other countries are considered developed.

Initially, the Montreal Protocol provided for freezing production of five most widely used CFC and halons at the level of 1986, and then phasing-out their production by 20% in 1993 and by 30% in 1998. The document limited export and import of ODS and offered support to developing countries in transfer of their industry to ozone-safe substances and technologies.

Measures implemented under the Protocol should significantly decrease global production of ODS but not cease it completely. Such an approach gave some time to develop and introduce technically and economically feasible alternatives (TEFA).

Later amendments and adjustments to the Protocol extended the list of controlled substances, respective consumption and production phase-out schedules and measures to limit export, import and other activities.

As of September 2018, 197 countries were parties to the Montreal Protocol.

USSR signed the protocol on 29.12.1987 and ratified it on 10.11.1988. The Russian Federation is a party to the protocol sicne 31.12.1991.

Some provisions of the Montreal Protocol

Article 2 establishes the phase-out schedule for ODS consumption and use.

Article 3 stipulates approaches to calculation of regulated levels.

Article 4 describes measures to control ODS sale aimed at encouraging countries to join the Montreal Protocol and prevent transfer of ODS produced in contravention of the control measures to countries which are not parties to the protocol.

Article 5 provides developing countries with ODS consumption level below the established one with the right to postpone control measures under Article 2 by 10 years.

Article 6 directs to reconsider control measures at least every four years on the basis of the latest information about scientific, environmental, technical and economical aspects of the ozone layer depletion.

Article 7 foresees annual provision of statistical data on production, import and export of each controlled substance to the Ozone secretariat.

Article 8 establishes measures to assess noncompliance with the protocol.

Article 9 foresees exchange of information between the Parties.

Article 10 provides for technical assistance to developing countries under fair and most favorable conditions.

The financing vehicle used to this end includes multilateral, regional and bilateral cooperation and Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol. MFMP funds cover agreed incremental costs developing countries acting under point 1 of Article 5 bear to comply with the control measures of the Montreal Protocol.

Adjustments and amendments to the Montreal Protocol

The first version was approved on September 16, 1987, and entered into force on January 1, 1989.

The protocol provides for adjustments to calculated coefficients with account of the latest scientific data allowing promptly change phase-out schedules. Adjustments are applied automatically to all the countries that ratified the Protocol.

Amendments to the Montreal Protocol should be ratified by the parties. Since 1987 five amendments have been adopted: the London, Copenhagen, Montreal, Beijing and Kigali ones.

In addition to adjustments and amendments, annual meetings of the parties are held where decisions on its implementation are made.

London amendment

In accordance with the London amendment, the list of ODS was supplemented with a number of new CFC, methyl chloroform (MCF) and carbon tetrachloride (CTC).

A new term, transitional substances — i.e. compounds affecting the ozone layer for which the period during which the production is allowed was not established — was introduced. These substances were seen as TEFA and included hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) and hydrobromofluorocarbons (HBFC).

The London amendment was adopted by the Second Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol (London, 27–29.06.1990). As of September 2018, the amendment was ratified by all the 197 parties.

USSR adopted it in pursuance of the order of the Cabinet of Ministers dd. 23.041991 No. 198. For RF, the amendment came into force on 13.01.1992.

Copenhagen amendment

The amendment set a time limit for production phase out of HFCF (2030 and 2040 for Article 2 and 5 countries, respectively) and HBFC (1996), and extended time limits for five CFC (R11, R12, R113, R114, R115), CTC, MCF (1996) and halons (1994).

Methyl bromide, a fumigant, became a controlled substance, so for Article 2 and 5 countries its use was frozen on the level of 1995 and 2002 respectively.

The Copenhagen amendment was adopted by the Fourth Meeting of the Parties (Copenhagen, 23–25.11.1992), and as of September 2018 it was ratified by all the parties to the Montreal Protocol.

The Russian Federation is a party to the amendment since 14.12.2005.

Montreal amendment

The amendment provides for establishment of a global licensing system to regulate ODS import and export, corrects methyl bromide production phase-out schedule and bans its import and export to and from countries which are not parties to the Copenhagen amendment.

The amendment was adopted by the Ninth Meeting of the Parties (Montreal, 15–25.11.1997), and as of September 2018 it was ratified by all the parties to the Montreal Protocol.

The Russian Federation is a party to the amendment since 14.12.2005.

Beijing amendment

The Beijing amendment establishes new HCFC consumption levels, prohibits trade in any ODS with countries that has not ratified it, introduces control measures for HCFC, CFC and halon production in developing countries, and bans production and consumption of bromochloromethane since 01.01.2002. HCFC production was frozen on the level of 01.01.2004 for Article 2 countries, and 01.01.2016 for Article 5 countries.

The amendment was adopted by the Eleventh Meeting of the Parties (Beijing, 29.11–3.12.1999), and as of September 2018 it was ratified by all the parties to the Montreal Protocol.

The Russian Federation is a party to the amendment since 14.12.2005.

Kigali amendment

This amendment stipulates for phase-out of production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFC).

It adds 100-year GWP for a number of HCFC and Annex F for HFC. Consumption levels (including the baseline) for the amendment will be calculated not in ozone-depleting potential tons but in GWP tons.

The amendment also establishes separate HFC phase-out schedules for four groups of countries: two of developing and two of developed.

The Kigali amendment was adopted by the Twenty Seventh Meeting of the Parties (Kigali, 10–15.10.2016), and as of September 2018 it was ratified by 48 parties to the Montreal protocol.

It comes into effect on 01.01.2019 except for a provision on control measures for HFC trade which will become effective on 01.01.2033, if at least 70 parties to the Protocol ratify the amendment by that time.

h2.Russia’s current obligations under the Montreal Protocol

SubstancePeriodReduction as compared to the baselineAnnual consumption of controlled substances
HCFC01.01.2015–31.12.201990% (HCFC)ODP ton399.69
01.01.2020–31.12.202999.5% (HCFC)19.98
Since 01.01.203000

ODP ton is a ton of ozone-depleting potential.

Baseline for HCFC is 3999.9 ODP t.

Russia’s potential obligations under the Montreal Protocol

If the Kigali amendment ratified, Russia will phase out HFC as follows:

SubstancePeriodReduction as compared to the baselineAnnual consumption of controlled substances
HFC01.01.2020–31.12.202495% (HFC)GWP tonTo be specified
01.01.2025–31.12.202865% (HFC)To be specified
01.01.2029–31.12.203330% (HFC)To be specified
01.01.2034–31.12.203520% (HFC)To be specified
Since 203615% (HFC)To be specified

GWP ton is a ton of global warming potential.

Baseline for HFC is average consumption of HFC in 2011–2013 plus 25% from HCFC baseline.

Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol

The Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol was established in 1991 to assist developing countries in fulfillment of the Montreal Protocol. Read more