The international community joined forces to eliminate the shared threat of depletion of the ozone layer which neither country or group of countries can solve independently.
Global ozone treaties—the Vienna Convention 1985 and Montreal Protocol—established a precedent when a framework agreement is followed by one or several protocols.
Similar principle was applied in case of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement.
The global framework convention on protection of the ozone layer was developed under the World Plan of Action on the Ozone Layer of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The Vienna Convention does not charge parties with reducing production and consumption of ODS. Such commitments were determined in the Montreal Protocol.
On March 22, 1985, stressful international negotiations led to adoption of the Vienna Convention. States that signed and ratified it became its parties which undertook to cooperate in studying and scientific assessment of the condition of the ozone layer, share information and take measures to prevent activities that may threaten the ozone layer. Read more
The Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer was adopted as an addendum to the Vienna Convention. The document introduces practical steps to protect the ozone layer, and with the Kigali Amendment, to reduce the greenhouse effect. To become a party to the Montreal Protocol, a state should be a party to the Vienna Convention.
On September 16, 1987, representatives of 46 countries signed the Montreal Protocol in Montreal, Canada.
By that time, effect of chlorine and bromine atoms on depletion of the ozone layer had been recognized, and annexes to the Protocol included chlorofluorocarbons (HFC) and bromine-containing halons. Read more
The Paris Agreement was prepared to replace the Kyoto Protocol under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and aimed at keeping the increase of the average global temperature through reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
In December 2015, the Paris Agreement was adopted at the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. This instrument replaced the Kyoto protocol which was in effect before. Attempts were made to avoid disadvantages of the protocol which prevented it from succeeding to the full extent. Read more
Legislative instruments of EAEU joining Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan, regulate transboundary movement of ozone-depleting substances and—after adoption of the Kigali amendment—fluorinated greenhouse gases.
The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) unites Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. Participating countries use common customs tariffs and other measures regulating commerce with third countries. The regulating authority of EAEU is the Eurasian Economic Commission (EEC). Read more
Russia’s legislative instruments on protection of the ozone layer and climate include federal laws and codes, decrees of the President, regulations and orders of the Government, orders, instructions and regulations of ministries and agencies on regulation of use of ozone-depleting substances, greenhouse gases and equipment containing these substances. Read more
Basic Japanese laws that regulate use of ozone-depleting substances and greenhouse gases are the Act on Protection of the Ozone Layer and Act on Rational Use and Proper Management of Fluorocarbons. Read more
Clean Air Act is one of the first and most influential present-day environmental US laws and one of the most comprehensive laws in the world. Title VI is dedicated to prevention of the ozone layer depletion. To ensure transition from ozone-depleting substances to environmentally safe alternatives, Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP program) was developed. Read more
General legislative environment of the European Union is supported by respective regulations and directives.
Basic EU acts regulating use of ozone-depleting substances and greenhouse gases are Regulation EC 1005/2009 on substances that deplete the ozone layer, 517/2014 on fluorinated greenhouse gases and Directive 2006/40/EC on emissions from air-conditioning systems in motor vehicles. Read more