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Phase-out of ozone-depleting substances
and fluorinated greenhouse gases in the Russian Federation

Clean Air Act

Clean Air Act (CAA) is the federal law to fight air pollution on a national level. Compliance with CAA is controlled by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with assistance of government authorities of various levels.

This instrument came into effect on 17.12.1963 covering almost all aspects of the condition of the atmosphere.

Since 1990 Title VI prevents regulates issues of destruction of the ozone layer. It divides all the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in two classes:

  • class I substances have ozone-depleting potential (ODP) from 0.2 and higher (e.g. CFC),
  • class II substances are less harmful (e.g. HCFC).

For each class a separate phase-out schedule is established.

Title VI specifies methods to prevent harmful effect of ODS, including recycling, destruction using appropriate means and search for their alternatives.


To research and adopt replacements for ODS in accordance with Title VI of CCA, EPA implements Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP).

The list of alternatives made under this program is changed depending on current evaluation of influence of controlled substances on the environment and human health and information about available alternatives. Only the most safe alternatives are included in the list.

When making it, EPA takes into account such characteristics as ODP, GWP, toxicity, flammability, safety to human health and life, environmental impact.

All alternatives are divided into acceptable, acceptable under certain conditions, acceptable with restrictions for certain uses and unacceptable.

In 2015 SNAP included greenhouse gases to force refrigeration and air conditioning decide against using HFC with high GWP in favor of alternatives safer for the environment. However, in 2017 the US Federal Court found that EPA cannot ban HFC not being ODS under SNAP.

SNAP website: